By Philipp Haller
Contemporary traits in computing device structure make concurrency and parallelism a vital factor of effective application execution. The actor version of concurrency permits you to show real-world concurrency in a traditional approach utilizing concurrent approaches that converse through asynchronous messages. Scala is a programming language for the Java digital laptop, offering first-class help for either object-oriented and sensible programming. by means of together with a strong actor framework in its commonplace library, Scala bargains a compelling method of take on concurrent programming. Scala's actors allow you to observe the actor concurrency version to the JVM, allowing real-world strategies which are effective, scalable, and strong. released through Artima, this is often the 1st publication on Scala's actors, co-authored by way of the writer and lead maintainer, Philipp Haller, and Frank Sommers. beginning with the basics of the actor concurrency version, this booklet deals a finished educational on useful programming with actors in Scala. It allows you to leverage the total energy of brand new and tomorrow's multi-core processors by way of describing either uncomplicated and complex beneficial properties of Scala's actor framework in-depth.
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Extra resources for Actors in Scala
Indeed, in earlier versions of Scala, match was implemented as a method, but various implementation issues led to it now being defined as a special keyword. Nevertheless, for all practical purposes, you can think of match as a method consuming a list of pattern matching cases as its argument. In the above example, the last pattern matching case, an underscore (_), is a wildcard that matches anything. But what if you left out that wild-card pattern? With the above example, the Scala compiler would complain and, if you ever passed into it a ConfirmationMessage that does not match one of your cases, match would result in a runtime exception.
You can find an excellent discussion of thread visibility on the JVM in [Goe06]. 2 One of the reasons why scalability is hard to achieve using locks (or Java-style synchronization) is the fact that coarse-grained locking increases the amount of code that is executed sequentially. Moreover, accessing a small number of locks (or, in the extreme case, a single global lock) from several threads may increase the cost of synchronization significantly. 2 · Interaction of data and control flow. concurrent, writing concurrent programs is still difficult and error prone.
One advantage of the actor-based approach is that it allows the continuation of CruiseControl—ThrottleControl—to be defined sometime after CruiseControl is defined—and even after an instance of CruiseControl is already initialized and loaded into memory: ThrottleControl is simply an actor with the uniform actor interface to receive messages. Thus all CruiseControl needs is a reference to the continuation actor, such as that actor’s address. The ability to perform such extreme late binding of a continuation allows developers to incrementally add knowledge—such as control flow—to an actor-based system.