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By George F. Vande Woude (ed.), George Klein (ed.)

Presents worthy info at the interesting and fast-moving box of melanoma research. Outstanding and unique studies are provided on various subject matters.

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Most of the new cases occur in East or Southeast Asia. In contrast, 24 Jia-Horng Kao et al. , 2009). Therapeutic options are available for HCC (Lin and Kao, 2010), including liver transplantation, surgical resection, and percutaneous ablation therapies, and these can be potentially “curative” if HCC is diagnosed at early stage. Use of these options varies between Asian and Western countries, except for liver transplantation, they are generally restricted to patients with early-stage HCC without advanced cirrhosis.

The mediators of liver inflammation are mainly immune-related cells and the inflammatory factors they produce, which are abnormally enriched in the local inflammatory microenvironment. Viral infection can recruit macrophages (Kupffer cells), T cells, and other immune cells to the microenvironment, which have been reported to orchestrate the microenvironment for tumor initiation or progression. , 2008), which can stimulate the transformation of hepatocytes to acquiring tumor-cell features such as self-sufficiency in growth, insensitivity to growth-inhibitory effects, evasion of programmed cell death, limitless replicative potential, sustained angiogenesis, and tissue invasion as well as metastasis (Hanahan and Weinberg, 2000).

These data suggest that virologic differences may exist among HBV genotypes; however, whether immunopathogenesis differs between various HBV genotypes need further studies. , 2007a). This observation may correlate with different outcomes of immunomodulatory treatment and the progression of liver disease in HBV carriers infected with different genotypes. In summary, virologic differences and subsequent interactions with host immune responses may influence clinical outcomes and epidemiologic characteristics of patients with different HBV genotype infections.

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