By Stefan Hagel
This booklet endeavours to pinpoint the kinfolk among musical, and particularly instrumental, perform and the evolving conceptions of pitch structures. It lines the improvement of historic melodic notation from reconstructed origins, via a variety of variations necessitated via altering musical kinds and newly invented tools, to its ultimate canonical shape. It hence emerges how heavily historic harmonic conception relied on the culturally dominant tools, the lyre and the aulos. those threads are all the way down to past due antiquity, while info recorded via Ptolemy allow a really transparent view. Dr Hagel discusses the textual and pictorial facts, introducing mathematical methods anywhere possible, but in addition contributes to the translation of tools within the archaeological checklist and infrequently is ready to define the final beneficial properties of tools in a roundabout way attested. The booklet might be integral to all these attracted to Greek song, know-how and function tradition and the final historical past of musicology.
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Additional resources for Ancient Greek Music: A New Technical History
Did and originally correspond to ? and B, and were then re-mapped to retain their logical position when the system was extended? 45 At any rate the coincidence of the basic notes of the ﬁrst vocal triplet and the instrumental triplet B ? , which certainly once constituted the upper end, makes it very likely that the vocal system was created before the upwards extension took place. It is also probable that at the time of this ﬁrst conception of the vocal signs the system was already so large that the twenty-four letters of the alphabet did not suċce for all signs needed.
11, p. 25; Theon, Util. math. , Coll. med. 23; Schol. , Or. 176). The origins of the notation 23 we must expect that it was almost instantly adapted to reﬂect the most recent advances in musical style. e. 64 Accordingly, the notation was extended downwards, in both of its scales. The inventors of the new signs, it seems, followed the direction led by the conception of : the rightwards orientation was no longer contrived by an opening, but by extensions from a vertical stroke. Starting from the template of , and omitting its horizontals in turn, one ended up with the basic signs ) and ;.
The further evolution of the tónoi was easily incorporated. Besides Dorian, Phrygian and Lydian, the established set of signs covered Hypophrygian and Hypodorian, as well. Only for Hypolydian an additional triplet had to be inserted, to ﬁll the gap between and . Its basic shape is still among those with an opening to the right;76 but we can hardly base any chronological speculation on its appearance. Nor is it certain that this sign only came late. e. 77 Still, the triplet based on was very probably introduced after the sign : otherwise it would have been 74 75 76 77 Cf.